Category Archives: History

No mortar required, can’t fit a needle into the joints!

37(d) No mortar required, can’t fit a needle into the joints!


Source:                                                                                                                 “The stones fit so perfectly that no blade of grass or steel can slide between them. There is no mortar. They often join in complex and irregular surfaces that would appear to be a nightmare for the stonemason.”


Ancient and mysterious stone wall in Sacsayhuaman Inca archaeological site in Cusco, Peru - stock photoAncient Inca fortress Saksaywaman near Cusco in Sacred Valley, Peru. (since 1983 was added as part of the city of Cusco to the UNESCO World Heritage List) - stock photo

Source:                                                                                        “Located 2km from the city (Cuzco). Together with the city of Cusco, this monumental complex is considered the first of the new seven wonders of the world. This huge construction was planned and built by Andean Man. The Incas called it the House of the Sun and the Spaniards called it a fortress because of its zig-zag shape and the 1536 revolution. The construction, which is made up of three platforms one on top of the other, was one of the most important religious complexes of its time.”

Source:                                                                                                                                                     About Andean man: “Although human occupation began over 20,000 years ago, the beginnings of agriculture and population growth are much more recent. Within the last 8,000 years a specialized desert-and-highland agriculture was developed.”

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Pyramids, pyramids & more pyramids

37(f) Pyramids, pyramids & more pyramids

I know that you are familiar with the three major pyramids at Giza, but did you know?:

  • When the “Great Pyramid” is displayed on TV it is most often not the Great one. What you usually see is the next largest, The Pyramid of Khafre, also known as the Pyramid of Chephren (the one with a portion of the granite cover stones still showing near the top).

“The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.”

  • There are actually at least 10 pyramids at Giza
  • There are 118 pyramids in Egypt, but that pales in comparison to Guatemala that has approximately 350. If you combine the Yucatan of Mexico and Central America there are nearly 1,000!
  • Ancient pyramids exist in the following countries: Canary Islands – Spain– Greece – Sudan– Egypt– Peru– Brazil– Bolivia– Japan– Guatemala– Mexico– Indonesia – Tahiti– Western Samoa– Kazakhstan– England– Italy– Nubia– Turkey– Bosnia
  • The great pyramid at Giza is the largest in the world, not.  The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl in Mexico was huge, see artist  rendering below. In its final form it measured 400 by 400 metres (1,300 by 1,300 ft).



Ancient underground cities

37 e) Ancient underground cities:

Housed about 20,000 residents and could be very old!

The underground city at Derinkuyu could be closed from the inside with large stone doors. Each floor could be closed off separately.

“The city could accommodate up to 20,000 people and had all the usual amenities found in other underground complexes across Cappadocia, such as wine and oil presses, stables, cellars, storage rooms, refectories, and chapels. Unique to the Derinkuyu complex and located on the second floor is a spacious room with a barrel vaulted ceiling. It has been reported that this room was used as a religious school and the rooms to the left were studies.

Between the third and fourth levels is a vertical staircase. This passageway leads to a cruciform church on the lowest (fifth) level.

The large 55 m ventilation shaft appears to have been used as a well. The shaft also provided water to both the villagers above and, if the outside world was not accessible, to those in hiding.”

“One theory regarding the age of the Derinkuyu Underground City is that the Phrygians built it around 800 B.C.E. They were there at that time, but there is not much more to go by than that. Another theory is that the Hittites built it. That would put the construction of Derinkuyu at least 200 years earlier, but possibly even a few hundred more than that. Another is that it was built by the Persian King Yima was ordered to build it by the god Ahura Mazda to protect his people from an ice age, as written in the Vendidad. The bottom line on this theory is that caves do not protect from ice ages. People still need food, fresh water and air, which might be difficult in deep snow and ice. Besides, the last glacial period was several thousand years before the earliest estimate for the city — from 110,000 to 10,000 years ago. That would put the construction of the Derinkuyu Underground City at roughly 7,000 years before the Hittites would have built it.”

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