Category Archives: History

Pyramids, pyramids & more pyramids

37(f) Pyramids, pyramids & more pyramids

I know that you are familiar with the three major pyramids at Giza, but did you know?:

  • When the “Great Pyramid” is displayed on TV it is most often not the Great one. What you usually see is the next largest, The Pyramid of Khafre, also known as the Pyramid of Chephren (the one with a portion of the granite cover stones still showing near the top).

“The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.”

  • There are actually at least 10 pyramids at Giza
  • There are 118 pyramids in Egypt, but that pales in comparison to Guatemala that has approximately 350. If you combine the Yucatan of Mexico and Central America there are nearly 1,000!
  • Ancient pyramids exist in the following countries: Canary Islands – Spain– Greece – Sudan– Egypt– Peru– Brazil– Bolivia– Japan– Guatemala– Mexico– Indonesia – Tahiti– Western Samoa– Kazakhstan– England– Italy– Nubia– Turkey– Bosnia
  • The great pyramid at Giza is the largest in the world, not.  The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl in Mexico was huge, see artist  rendering below. In its final form it measured 400 by 400 metres (1,300 by 1,300 ft).



Ancient underground cities

37 e) Ancient underground cities:

Housed about 20,000 residents and could be very old!

The underground city at Derinkuyu could be closed from the inside with large stone doors. Each floor could be closed off separately.

“The city could accommodate up to 20,000 people and had all the usual amenities found in other underground complexes across Cappadocia, such as wine and oil presses, stables, cellars, storage rooms, refectories, and chapels. Unique to the Derinkuyu complex and located on the second floor is a spacious room with a barrel vaulted ceiling. It has been reported that this room was used as a religious school and the rooms to the left were studies.

Between the third and fourth levels is a vertical staircase. This passageway leads to a cruciform church on the lowest (fifth) level.

The large 55 m ventilation shaft appears to have been used as a well. The shaft also provided water to both the villagers above and, if the outside world was not accessible, to those in hiding.”

“One theory regarding the age of the Derinkuyu Underground City is that the Phrygians built it around 800 B.C.E. They were there at that time, but there is not much more to go by than that. Another theory is that the Hittites built it. That would put the construction of Derinkuyu at least 200 years earlier, but possibly even a few hundred more than that. Another is that it was built by the Persian King Yima was ordered to build it by the god Ahura Mazda to protect his people from an ice age, as written in the Vendidad. The bottom line on this theory is that caves do not protect from ice ages. People still need food, fresh water and air, which might be difficult in deep snow and ice. Besides, the last glacial period was several thousand years before the earliest estimate for the city — from 110,000 to 10,000 years ago. That would put the construction of the Derinkuyu Underground City at roughly 7,000 years before the Hittites would have built it.”

stay tuned next week for more related to this topic

Amazing precision tool work


37(c) Amazing precision tool work

Puma Punku

Above are from Puma Punku, Peru.


Puma Punku (or Puma Pumku), a mysterious site located in Bolivia, has astounded archaeologists. It is part of a larger archaeological complex known as Tiahuanacu, and is considered to be one of the most important sites of Andean history.

An Austrian explorer named Arthur Posnansky performed a study on Puma Punku back in 1926. According to him and his supporters, Puma Punku is considered to be one of the oldest archaeological sites on the face of Earth, dating back to 13,000 BCE. Another group of archaeologists used the (unreliable) carbon dating method to date the site to about 400 AD.

The most intriguing thing about Puma Punku is the stonework. The red sandstone and andesite stones were cut in such a precise way that it’s as if they were cut using a diamond tool, and they can fit perfectly into and lock with each other. Another phenomenon of engineering is that each stone weighs up to 800 tons.  Interviews with modern day stone masons have revealed that even with today’s advanced technology, it would be almost impossible to replicate the precision observed in the stones found at Puma Punku.”

Regardless of the age, the stone work is amazing!

Stay tuned next week for more related to this topic.