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Date of creation (From Conservapedia)

Date of creation (From Conservapedia)

“The date of Creation has been debated for many years. Separate calculations have given different answers although most are fairly close to each other.

Basis of calculation

The Bible contains chronogenealogies from Adam to Abraham, listing the age at which each person in the genealogy gave birth to the next person in the list, thus allowing by simple addition a determination of how many years passed between Creation and Abraham. There are other chronological indications also, allowing that calculation to be extended into the times of the kings, when the dates can be correlated with other events in history for which the absolute date is known. By this means, in theory, one can calculate the date of Creation.

Calculated dates

The best known date of Creation is the one calculated by Archbishop James Ussher in the 17th century – namely 6:00 p.m. Saturday, October 23, 4004 BC. Ussher calculated the year of Creation by the following means:

  • He accepted the date of the death of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon at 562 BC.
  • He then assumed that Evil-Merodach began to reign in that year.
  • King Jehoiachin received a pension from Evil-Merodach beginning in this year, and that he was taken captive 37 years before then, or in 599 BC. (The final Fall of Jerusalem occurred eleven years later; hence Ussher places the Fall of Jerusalem in 588 BC, not 586 BC as most secular archaeologists assume.)
  • From that anchor point, Ussher worked backward through the king lists of the Divided Kingdoms Northern and Southern. See I and II Kings.
  • He worked backward further to set the dates-of-reign of King Solomon, and calculated the Exodus of Israel at 480 years earlier than the groundbreaking of the Temple, which was in Solomon’s fourth year. This fell in 1012 BC, and so Ussher fixed the Exodus at 1491 BC.
  • Based on his interpretation of Galatians 3:17 , Ussher then fixed the date of the entry of Abraham into Canaan. This was in 1921 BC.
  • Ussher here made a key assumption that is in great dispute. We read that Abraham was 75 years old when he embarked into Canaan. We also read that Terah was 70 years old when he “begat” Abraham, Nahor (the younger), and Haran. Ussher’s assumption, which added another sixty years to the reckoning of Creation, was this: that Abraham did not embark on his own until after Terah had died at the age of 205. This would mean that Terah was actually 130 years old, not 70, when Abraham was born—and presumably that Nahor the Younger or Haran was born when Terah was 70. Ussher’s sole warrant for this assumption is that the Bible describes Abraham’s departure after it describes Terah’s “death.” But Terah’s “death” might be spiritual rather than physical, in that Terah had originally intended to take all his family out of Ur of the Chaldees and into Canaan, but forgot his purpose and grew too accustomed to worldly enticements in the country of Haran. If that is the case, then Abraham might have departed when Terah was still alive—which is what the inventors of the present Hebrew calendar assumed.
  • Ussher then backtracked the pedigree of Abraham to Arphaxad, born to Shem two years after the Great Flood. He therefore concluded that the Great Flood happened in 2349 BC.
  • Finally, Ussher backtracked the genealogy of Shem to Adam.

To arrive at the month and approximate date, Ussher concluded that Creation must have occurred during the Autumnal Equinox, which in fact is the favorite start of many of the world’s calendars, ancient and modern. He also assumed that the ancient Hebrews did not attempt to synchronize their months with the moon until after their exile into Babylonia. He thus calculated the date of Creation at October 23, 4004 BC according to the Julian calendar.

Because the seven days of Creation (including one day of rest) set the pattern for our week, Ussher decided that the Creation began on the first day of the week, i.e. Sunday. However, because the day was defined as being an “evening and morning”, and some calendars to this day still have the days beginning at sunset, Ussher concluded Creation actually began at what on modern western calendars would be 6 p.m. (sunset at the equinox) on Saturday.

James Ussher’s calculation was the best-sourced calculation in all of Christendom at the time. Ussher also spoke with authority, and from a position of authority. For those reasons, his dates for various Biblical events appeared in the margins of King James and other Bibles for centuries, until the last quarter of the twentieth century, when publishers abandoned this practice. Sir Isaac Newton defended Ussher’s date.

Johannes Kepler also attempted to calculate the date using his own methods (sadly lost to time); he worked it out to be 3992 B.C.

Such calculations in fact date from at least the Middle Ages, and offer a range of dates from around 5000 to 4000 BC. The date used by Eastern Orthodox Christianity is often 1 September, 5509 BC. This was the date used as the beginning point for their calendars. Traditionalist Catholics often use 5199 BC. Judaic tradition reckons the date of Creation at 3760 BC. Another calculation, beginning with the date of the destruction of Jerusalem known from secular history and working backwards, arrives at 4163 BC.

Retrieved from:  “https://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Date_of_creation&oldid=1255166”              The preceding information assumes that the bible is an accurate historical document. Most folks date the actual writing of the first book of Genesis at between 1200 and 900 BC. The latter date is likely the most reasonable as there is no conclusive evidence that the Aramaic Alphabet existed before that time. This means that only an oral account existing for at least 3,000 years. The veracity of every detail (and likely most details) is doubtful. If we place any value on the scientific evidence of creation of the Universe, the Galaxy and our Planet then common sense will dictate that the time frame is far off. This does not mean that certain elements of the bible are inaccurate. Many elements of the text that closely correspond to the Sumerian tablets.  The Sumerian tablets were written several thousands of years before the bible!

Resurrecting Respect

I apologize in advance for this self-serving post. I also apologize to my Sophies Soapbox Facebook readers since this will be a partial repeat of a prior Facebook post. I recently had a book published and much of the material was taken from prior posts to this blog. The book is titled Resurrecting Respect.

Our country has fallen from a position of leadership and respect that it had earned after WW II. What made the U.S.A. the example for the rest of the world has eroded. The reasons are complex and not the work of any one political party or faction. The “blame game” runs rampant and as a result, we have not been willing to work toward reclaiming our status. This little book attempts to examine the issues with an apolitical view. While the first part is essentially a “moan” the second part offers many practical solutions.

All of the opinions and solutions in the book support the following principals:

  1. In the USA, our citizens and permanent residents deserve freedom of speech, worship and freedom from want & fear, affordable quality healthcare, and an affordable education.
  2. Over time, many of our past successes have eroded and now require evaluation and change. There are many areas where we were once an (if not “the”) world leader, but are no longer. Changes will be required to make the U.S.A. great again.
  3. Our founding fathers intended to create a system where the common people ruled and not the “Royals.” We have created a new class of Royals, if not in the title, but for certain in practice.
  4. Service to country (and the earth) is more important than individual gain.
  5. Individual freedoms are sacrosanct as long as they do not infringe on the right’s other individuals
  6. Short term benefits should never unduly mortgage future generations.
  7. Government spending should be accountable to the taxpayer, and borrowing obligations should be “transparent” both in terms of current deficits and future “unfunded” liabilities. Both areas should be subject to reasonable limits that congress would not have the ability to override.
  8. Unskilled and semi-skilled workers should receive, at a minimum, the compensation required to provide the entitlements in #1 above.
  9. When the economy (real GDP) is growing the middle class deserves its fair share of this growth. The middle class is paying more than their fair share to fund our government.
  10. Persons and families in need deserve our support. We should give those in need the opportunity to maintain their self-respect. Everyone should have the opportunity to “contribute” to the country commensurate to their abilities. All subsidies should have limited terms except in cases of ongoing and legally documented disability. 
  11.  The role of money in our election process and determining the outcome must be reduced.
  12. Least government is the best government. Citizens in service to the Federal Government will be paid fairly, but not overpaid. By that, I mean their total compensation should be in line with comparable positions in private industry. Where possible, productivity standards should be in place for all government workers.
  13. The time available for election campaigns requires reduction. We need more time governing and less time campaigning.
  14. Capitalism is the preferred economic system as long as it provides for most of the citizens to participate in owning capital. Participation in capitalism should include all classes other than those requiring subsidies.
  15. Taxes come in many forms. For example: When your government chooses to support an inefficient and costly system when cheaper and better alternatives exist, then you are being taxed.
  16. Worldwide free markets are most efficient in the long-term, fostering innovation and productivity
  17. Growth for the sake of growth is not the best measure of economic viability. Productivity ultimately determines effective resource utilization and well-being. This measure becomes even more important for countries when their internal population is declining. Measures like GDP per capita are a better economic measure of success.
  18. Our elected representatives should play by the same rules as the voters that elected them into office regarding benefits and entitlements.
Resurrecting Respect: True Patriotism

Moses & the 10 Commandments

Moses & the 10 Commandments

When did Moses get the 10 Commandments?   

The Ten Commandments were written by God upon two tablets of stone and then given to Moses on Mount Sinai. Most scholars date this event around the 13th or 14th century BC.

The above caused me to wonder what language the Diety used to convey the commandments and if anyone in the tribe was able to read, other that Moses?

I suppose we would think that Aramaic would have been the most logical. Chris Rollston has done quite a bit of research on the early writings from the Isralis and dates the early alphabet to circo 900 BC.

“Did ancient Israelites write? Is there evidence apart from the Hebrew Bible? If so, what did they write? And who could write?

Inscriptions on stone, notes and scribbles on pots and potsherds, names on seals and other writings are often so interesting you don’t ask how they were written or who the writers were. Chris Rollston does that in this readable new book.

He also sketches the early history of the alphabet—to about 900 B.C., when monuments from Byblos show that the letters had reached their basic shapes. His detailed analysis reveals how small changes in letters appear at Byblos over a century or so of use. That Phoenician script, he argues, was used for the Gezer Calendar late in the tenth century and in the Aramaic language Tell Fekheriyeh statue a century later.

Interesting to ponder!