Category Archives: History

Why no Wheels?

Why no Wheels?

Wheels were commonplace in Africa (Egypt) as early as 3200 BC, in Europe circa 500 BC and in Egypt circa 100 BC. Why was the wheel not present in the Americas until 1500 CA?

The Mayan civilization prospered for 3,000 years. They were highly advanced in numerous areas and yet they missed out on the wheel. I’m just asking.

See the following link for a Salute to the Wheel.

The Serapeum of Saqqara

The Serapeum of Saqqara is a serapeum located north west of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, a necropolis near Memphis in Lower Egypt. It was a burial place of Apis bullssacred bulls that were incarnations of the ancient Egyptian deity Ptah. It was believed that the bulls became immortal after death. The conventional belief is that the construction occurred circa 1350 BCE. A second gallery of chambers, now known as the “Greater Vaults”, was excavated under Psamtik I (664–610 BC) of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and later extended to approximately 350 m in length, 5 m tall and 3 m wide by the Ptolemaic dynasty along with a long, parallel service tunnel. These gallery chambers contained granite and diorite sarcophagi, some weighing up to 70 tons (including lid), though all were found empty. The preceding the generally accepted view.

The 24 tombs of the Great Vault, as well as 40 other giant sarcophagi Mariette discovered buried under sand, represent generations of bulls and the survival of a cult that may have originated as early as 4,000 BCE.

This site is absolutely amazing and I have my doubts concerning the “conventional” wisdom. Why were absolutely no remains of the Apis Bulls found? What technology was used to transport the 70 ton sarcophagi deep underground and along the hallway of the Great Vault?

War Elephants

War Elephants

Where did Hannibal and others get their War Elephants?                                                                Two Species of Elephant

In antiquity, two elephants were known – the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the African Forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis). The latter is now almost extinct and only found in the Gambia; it was smaller than the, at the time unknown, African elephant of central and southern Africa (Loxodonta africana), which explains why ancient writers all claimed the Indian elephant was larger than the African. The Asian elephant became known in Europe following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE and contact with the Mauryan Empire of India. So impressed was Alexander with the war elephants of Porus, who was said to have had a corps of 200 when he fought the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BCE, that he formed his own ceremonial elephant corps. Many of Alexander’s successors went one step further and employed them in battle proper. Indeed, the Seleucid Empire made sure to exclusively control the traffic in Asian elephants.

Acquisition & Deployment

Elephants, being only available from Africa or Asia, were expensive commodities to acquire for Mediterranean powers. Added to this was the cost of maintaining them and training both the wild elephant and its rider to form some sort of battle order on the field of combat. Then there was the problem of transporting them to where they were needed, although famously, the Carthaginian general Hannibal managed to get at least some of his 37 elephants across the Alps and into Italy in 218 BCE.


Despite the cost and difficulties, and because in antiquity the evolution in weaponry was extremely slow, the attraction of such large animals trampling all over the enemy remained. This meant that military commanders went out of their way to supplement their armies with elephants. Seleukos I Nikator famously swapped parts of his eastern empire to gain 500 elephants from Indian emperor Chandragupta in 305 BCE. The armies of the Antigonids and Ptolemies also fielded Asian elephants, although generally in much smaller numbers. In the 270’s BCE, for example, Ptolemy II trained African elephants for use in his army and even appointed a high official to be responsible for them, the elephantarchos. According to Plutarch, 475 elephants took part in the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE during the Successor Wars. In 275 BCE, in a battle known as the ‘Elephant Victory’, Antigonus Gonatas, although outnumbered, used 16 elephants to terrify an army of Gauls into retreat.    

Pyrrhus of Epirus was the first commander to employ elephants in Europe when he used 20 Asian ones in his campaigns in Italy and Sicily from 280 to 275 BCE. There Pyrrhus gained notable victories against the Romans in the battles of Heraclea (280 BCE) and Asculum (279 BCE).

The Carthaginians were able to readily acquire African elephants from the Atlas forest region they formed an elephant corps from the 260’s BCE. These were used in the First and Second Punic Wars against Rome in the mid and late 3rd century BCE, notably in the Battle at the river Tagus in Spain in 220 BCE and at the Battle of Trebia in northern Italy in 218 BCE. Elephants even appeared on Carthaginian coins of the period. After his initial corps died in the winter of 218/217 BCE Hannibal acquired fresh replacements and used elephants again at the siege of Capua in 211 BCE.