Category Archives: History

Lighting Up Saqqara:

Lighting Up Saqqara: An Electrifying Theory for the Serapeum Sarcophagi

The Serapeum of Saqqara has been a continuous source of speculation and mystery since its re-discovery in 1850. Even now, no theory has been able to explain exactly how or why the 24 giant sarcophagi were moved to the site and precisely installed in their notches. The mainstream theory suggests the site was used for the burial of Apis bulls, though many elements do not add up with this belief.

For example, the size of the boxes exceeds the size of the bulls; was it done to provide extra comfort for them? Why not do the same for the pharaohs, who were buried in tiny coffins barely fitting their bodies? Why did they make the Serapeum sarcophagi out of granite and not with limestone, a material much easier to work with? And if Serapeum was the burial site for the Apis bulls, where are the bull mummies?

A little Photoshop to compare the size of a bull (which is about 2.3 meters long) and a Serapeum sarcophagus based on measurement by Linant-Bey. This is a typical bull mummy from Dynastic times.

Several people reject the theory of the Serapeum having been used for ceremonial burials (at least not in the grand gallery of the site where the large coffins are located), but if not that, then what was it used for?  The hall that runs between the sarcophagi is more than the length of 2 ½ football fields! That is the question posed by some Egyptologists…and it is little wonder that they hear a “sound of crickets chirping” in return – in other words, they’ve found no other plausible alternative theory. By default, we fall back to the Apis theory with all its flaws.

What is unexplained to me regardless of the purpose is how they were transported underground down a narrow hall and put in place. Linant de Bellefonds calculated one of the large sarcophagi of the Greater Vaults to have a total mass of 62 tons (124,000 lbs) at most: 37.6 tons (75,000 lbs) for the body and 24.4 tons (49,000 lbs) for the lid. To get a good idea of how amazing these sarcophagi are check out the segments in season 13 episode 7 of Ancient Aliens.

How old is the Sphinx?

How old is the Sphinx?

“The Great Sphinx of Giza, a giant limestone figure with the body of a lion and the head of a man wearing a pharaoh’s headdress, is the national symbol of Egypt—both ancient and modern—and one of the world’s most famous monuments. Despite its iconic status, geologists, archaeologists, Egyptologists, and others continue to debate the Sphinx’s enduring “riddle”: Exactly how old is it? The most common wisdom holds that the monolith is around 4,500 years old, and was built for Khafre, a pharaoh of Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty who lived circa 2603-2578 B.C. His pyramid is the second tallest of the pyramids built at Giza, next to his father Khufu’s Great Pyramid. To make up for its lesser size, Khafre’s pyramid was built at a higher elevation and surrounded by a more elaborate complex with numerous statues, including the Sphinx, the head of which is thought to be built in the pharaoh’s image.

Not everyone believes that the Sphinx was built for Khafre, however. As far back as the mid-19th century, some Egyptologists pointed out that even though the Sphinx is located within the pyramid complex traditionally identified as Khafre’s, no contemporary inscriptions directly link him with the statue. Over the years, various researchers have credited the Sphinx to Khafre’s father, Khufu, and to Djedefre, another of Khufu’s sons. More recently, a new theory emerged that places the statue’s origins much further back, to some 9,000 years ago. Supporters of this hypothesis point to extensive erosion of the limestone near the top of the Great Sphinx, arguing that the last time the region experienced enough rainfall in the region to cause this type of erosion of limestone was 7000 B.C.

Dating the Sphinx back this far suggests the statue was the work of an advanced civilization predating the ancient Egyptians—an intriguing, if highly controversial, proposition. Most scholars still accept the traditional dating of the Sphinx to Khafre’s era, arguing that the new theory doesn’t take into account all the evidence on the table. Carved from the natural limestone of the Giza Plateau, known as the Mokkatam Formation, the Sphinx is known to erode very quickly, which would explain why it looks older than its age. Moreover, water drainage beneath the ground’s surface or flooding from the Nile River could have caused the erosion in question, rather than precipitation. According to the Ancient Egypt Research Association (AERA), the architectural and geological evidence both support the conclusion that the Sphinx and its adjoining temple were built along with the rest of Khafre’s pyramid complex, and were in fact among the last of the monuments to be completed.”

Technology Cycles

Technology Cycles

I am convinced that we don’t understand the probability that we have been here before. Our view is that we are at the pinnacle of technology, far in advance of any prior civilization. Our view of history is both short-sighted and flawed. We have evidence of what I refer to as “short cycles”. Consider the advanced technology of Egyptian, Roman & Greek civilizations that devolved into the Dark Ages that lasted almost 900 years.

This is an example of what could have transpired many times in the past, we just do not have documented history. Why don’t we have evidence of lost technology? The answer is simple. Unless the technology remains in the form of stone it can be lost in in a matter of years and any evidence completely disappears in a few hundred.

We know that a civilization existed in Southern Africa circa 200,000 BCA. They possessed some modicum of technology that enabled them to mine gold. Not surprisingly there is no evidence. What if prior high-tech civilizations existed and each lasted for 5,000 years only to decline or be destroyed by a catastrophe?  How many times might have this occurred? Five, ten, or more? We will never know.

The only evidence we have is what they left in stone. And since stone cannot be carbon-dated we can only speculate. There is no appreciable difference in the age of granite (or the like) stone. It could be 1,000 or 10,000 or 100,000 years old. Regardless the technology is evident.

In my opinion the best examples are: 1. Sacsayhuaman near Cusco, Peru where massive stones (some weighing over 200 tons) were quarried several miles away across a river and valley and then up a steep hill. Over 10,000 of them were then assembled in a manner that allowed them to fit precisely together without using mortar. The seems are so accurate that not even a human hair can breach the joints. We are not able to reproduce this feat with today’s technology. sacsayhuaman-fortress                                                                                           2. Puna Punku near La Paz, Bolivia. This site has been demolished either by a natural catastrophe or a massive explosion but the remnants are amazing. The huge “H” blocks have been machine-carved with a precision that would require computer-aided laser technology (at the very least). Also, the joints are made in a “dovetail” fashion in order that they can be securely attached.

  1. The Giza Pyramids near Cairo, Egypt. We all know what an amazing feat this represents. While the accepted view is that they built around 2,500 BCE that assertion is based on only one piece of dubious evidence. Originally these structures were assumed to be burial tombs for the ruling phaerohs. There is no evidence for this. Amazingly the Step Pyramid was deemed to be older, but it contains hyroglyphs and artwork as well as a burial tomb. None of the 3 Giza pyramids contain any of that. There is a growing body of suspicion that these structures are much much older. Since they are stone monuments we can only guess at their age.

I have had the pleasure of visiting Sacsayhuaman three times and have been inside the Great Pyramid at Giza. We have a trip planned to visit Puma Punku and Tia Wanaka in the spring of 2024.