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National debt growth

National debt growth under every president from Richard Nixon to Joe Biden

See how much debt was racked up during each administration

By Breck Dumas FOX Business

The U.S. national debt surpassed $31 trillion this recently and will balloon further as federal government spending continues to accelerate along with interest paid on the balance.

American leaders have been on a spending binge for decades under both Democratic and Republican administrations, and not since Republican President Calvin Coolidge, who departed the White House in 1929, has an American president reduced the national debt over their tenure in office, according to an analysis by Sound Dollar.

Both the executive and legislative branches have a say in spending: The president submits a proposed budget each year to Congress, which ultimately holds the power of the purse.                                                                                                                         With that in mind, Sound Dollar adjusted the figures to account for the fact that in a president’s first year in office, they operate on a budget they inherited from their predecessor.

The national debt took a significant leap for the time under GOP President Richard Nixon, who racked up $121.3 billion — nearly three times the debt of Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson — before resigning during his second term in 1974. A few years prior in 1971, Nixon famously took the U.S. off the gold standard.

Since that time, the debt has continued to surge.                                                                                                                                            Following Nixon, Republican Gerald Ford was able to tack another $223.8 billion onto the debt in only three years in office during a period of stagflation. Democrat Jimmy Carter added $299 million during his single term, marred by a recession.

Ronald Reagan was the first president to push debt accumulation into the trillions, contributing $1.86 trillion to what the U.S. owed during his terms from 1981 to 1989. The Republicans implemented tax cuts to pull the economy out of recession and boosted military spending during his time in office.

Fellow Republican George H.W. Bush nearly matched the amount of debt accumulated under Reagan but did so in a single term, adding another $1.4 trillion during his presidency due in part to U.S. involvement in the First Gulf War.

National debt growth slowed some after that during the two terms of Democratic President Bill Clinton, who famously worked with a GOP-controlled House of Representatives to balance the budget. But the debt still grew by $1.4 trillion by the time Clinton left office in 2001.                                                                                                                                                                                       Spending surged again, however, under GOP President George W. Bush when another $6.1 trillion was added to the debt from 2001-2009. Bush was president during the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on Sept. 11, 2001, which led to the U.S. war in Afghanistan that lasted 20 years. The U.S. also launched the Iraq War under Bush in 2003, and Congress famously passed a $700 billion bank bailout during his tenure in reaction to the financial crash of 2008.

After George W. Bush, Democratic President Barack Obama added another $8.34 trillion during his time in the White House from 2009 until 2017. During the Obama administration, Congress implemented some tax relief proposed by the president and also passed his signature “Obamacare” health insurance reform, the Affordable Care Act.

Republican President Donald Trump added nearly as much national debt during his four years in office as Obama did in eight, posting another $8.2 trillion. Trump vastly expanded the defense budget under his watch and cut taxes, but much of the debt incurred happened as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 when Congress passed trillions in relief spending to combat the virus.

President Joe Biden also submitted a record military budget last year, and the Democrat-controlled Congress further passed his American Rescue Plan Act to provide additional pandemic relief. Less than two years into office, Biden has added $1.84 trillion to the national debt.

Technology Cycles

Technology Cycles

I am convinced that we don’t understand the probability that we have been here before. Our view is that we are at the pinnacle of technology, far in advance of any prior civilization. Our view of history is both short-sighted and flawed. We have evidence of what I refer to as “short cycles”. Consider the advanced technology of Egyptian, Roman & Greek civilizations that devolved into the Dark Ages that lasted almost 900 years.

This is an example of what could have transpired many times in the past, we just do not have documented history. Why don’t we have evidence of lost technology? The answer is simple. Unless the technology remains in the form of stone it can be lost in in a matter of years and any evidence completely disappears in a few hundred.

We know that a civilization existed in Southern Africa circa 200,000 BCA. They possessed some modicum of technology that enabled them to mine gold. Not surprisingly there is no evidence. What if prior high-tech civilizations existed and each lasted for 5,000 years only to decline or be destroyed by a catastrophe?  How many times might have this occurred? Five, ten, or more? We will never know.

The only evidence we have is what they left in stone. And since stone cannot be carbon-dated we can only speculate. There is no appreciable difference in the age of granite (or the like) stone. It could be 1,000 or 10,000 or 100,000 years old. Regardless the technology is evident.

In my opinion the best examples are: 1. Sacsayhuaman near Cusco, Peru where massive stones (some weighing over 200 tons) were quarried several miles away across a river and valley and then up a steep hill. Over 10,000 of them were then assembled in a manner that allowed them to fit precisely together without using mortar. The seems are so accurate that not even a human hair can breach the joints. We are not able to reproduce this feat with today’s technology. sacsayhuaman-fortress                                                                                           2. Puna Punku near La Paz, Bolivia. This site has been demolished either by a natural catastrophe or a massive explosion but the remnants are amazing. The huge “H” blocks have been machine-carved with a precision that would require computer-aided laser technology (at the very least). Also, the joints are made in a “dovetail” fashion in order that they can be securely attached.

  1. The Giza Pyramids near Cairo, Egypt. We all know what an amazing feat this represents. While the accepted view is that they built around 2,500 BCE that assertion is based on only one piece of dubious evidence. Originally these structures were assumed to be burial tombs for the ruling phaerohs. There is no evidence for this. Amazingly the Step Pyramid was deemed to be older, but it contains hyroglyphs and artwork as well as a burial tomb. None of the 3 Giza pyramids contain any of that. There is a growing body of suspicion that these structures are much much older. Since they are stone monuments we can only guess at their age.

I have had the pleasure of visiting Sacsayhuaman three times and have been inside the Great Pyramid at Giza. We have a trip planned to visit Puma Punku and Tia Wanaka in the spring of 2024.

The first Americans

The accepted theory is that homo sapiens originated in Southern Africa circa 200,000 BCE and that they very slowly migrated North. As they did skin tone slowly lightened from black to brown and eventually to Caucasian in latitudes above 30 degrees. Earliest estimates are they arrived in Europe about 60,000 BCE then migrated East into Asia & Australia about 20,000 years later. Inhabitants of Northern Asia (current Siberia) then migrated over the ice to what is now Alaska and then continued South to warmer climes. Until recently the oldest settlement was in Clovis New Mexio. [from Wikipedia]“Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleoamerican archaeological culture, named for distinct stone and bone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna, particularly two Columbian mammoths, at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in 1936 and 1937, though Paleoindian artifacts had been found at the site since the 1920s. It existed from roughly 11,500 to 10,800 BCE (≈13,500-12,800 years Before Present) near the end of the Last Glacial Period.” Obviously, the ancestors of the inhabitants must have crossed the ice sheet much earlier.

However, more recently and even older settlement has been discovered in Monte Verde, Chili. [again from Wikipedia] Monte Verde is a Paleolithic archaeological site in the Llanquihue Province in southern Chile, located near Puerto MonttLos Lagos Region. It contains two separate layers, the younger Monte Verde II, dating to 12,500 BCE, and an older, much more controversial layer (Monte Verde I) suggested to date to 16,500 BCE. The Monte Verde II site has been considered key evidence showing that the human settlement of the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1,000 years (or 5,000 years if the controversial 18,500 BCE dates are confirmed). This contradicts the previously accepted “Clovis first” model which holds that settlement of the Americas began after 13,500 BCE. The Monte Verde findings were initially dismissed by most of the scientific community, but the evidence then became more accepted in archaeological circles.

Keep in mind that this site is 6,360 miles South of Clovis and 9,010 miles South of Alaska. Even at accelerated rates of migration, it would be reasonable to assume that the first American immigrants arrived about 20,000 BCE.

What is interesting is that the route to the Americas is largely above 60 degrees which is similar to the Scandinavian regions and yet there is no evidence the initial immigrants possessed light skin tone. I have many questions. When migrants reached the California & Baja areas why did they leave this ideal climate for warmer areas South? Why have the indigenous inhabitants )above 60 degrees latitude) not seen a lightening of their skin tone?

The first Americans

The accepted theory is that homo sapiens originated in Southern Africa circa 200,000 BCE and that they very slowly migrated North. As they did skin tone slowly lightened from black to brown and eventually to Caucasian in latitudes above 30 degrees. Earliest estimates are they arrived in Europe about 60,000 BCE then migrated East into Asia & Australia about 20,000 years later. Inhabitants of Northern Asia (current Siberia) then migrated over the ice to what is now Alaska and then continued South to warmer climes. Until recently the oldest settlement was in Clovis New Mexico. [from Wikipedia]“Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleoamerican archaeological culture, named for distinct stone and bone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna, particularly two Columbian mammoths, at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in 1936 and 1937, though Paleoindian artifacts had been found at the site since the 1920s. It existed from roughly 11,500 to 10,800 BCE (≈13,500-12,800 years Before Present) near the end of the Last Glacial Period.” Obviously, the ancestors of the inhabitants must have crossed the ice sheet much earlier.

However, more recently and even older settlement has been discovered in Monte Verde, Chili. [again from Wikipedia] Monte Verde is a Paleolithic archaeological site in the Llanquihue Province in southern Chile, located near Puerto MonttLos Lagos Region. It contains two separate layers, the younger Monte Verde II, dating to 12,500 BCE, and an older, much more controversial layer (Monte Verde I) suggested to date to 16,500 BCE. The Monte Verde II site has been considered key evidence showing that the human settlement of the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1,000 years (or 5,000 years if the controversial 18,500 BCE dates are confirmed). This contradicts the previously accepted “Clovis first” model which holds that settlement of the Americas began after 13,500 BCE. The Monte Verde findings were initially dismissed by most of the scientific community, but the evidence then became more accepted in archaeological circles.

Remember that this site is 6,360 miles South of Clovis and 9,010 miles South of Alaska. Even at accelerated rates of migration, it would be reasonable to assume that the first American immigrants arrived about 20,000 BCE.

What is interesting is that the route to the Americas is largely above 60 degrees which is similar to the Scandinavian regions and yet there is no evidence the initial immigrants possessed light skin tone. I have many questions. When migrants reached the California & Baja areas why did they leave this ideal climate for warmer areas South? Why have the indigenous inhabitants )above 60 degrees latitude) not seen a lightening of their skin tone?