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The Serapeum of Saqqara

The Serapeum of Saqqara is a serapeum located north west of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, a necropolis near Memphis in Lower Egypt. It was a burial place of Apis bullssacred bulls that were incarnations of the ancient Egyptian deity Ptah. It was believed that the bulls became immortal after death. The conventional belief is that the construction occurred circa 1350 BCE. A second gallery of chambers, now known as the “Greater Vaults”, was excavated under Psamtik I (664–610 BC) of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and later extended to approximately 350 m in length, 5 m tall and 3 m wide by the Ptolemaic dynasty along with a long, parallel service tunnel. These gallery chambers contained granite and diorite sarcophagi, some weighing up to 70 tons (including lid), though all were found empty. The preceding the generally accepted view.

The 24 tombs of the Great Vault, as well as 40 other giant sarcophagi Mariette discovered buried under sand, represent generations of bulls and the survival of a cult that may have originated as early as 4,000 BCE.

This site is absolutely amazing and I have my doubts concerning the “conventional” wisdom. Why were absolutely no remains of the Apis Bulls found? What technology was used to transport the 70 ton sarcophagi deep underground and along the hallway of the Great Vault?

The Siberian Tiger

The Siberian Tiger

The Siberian tiger is a tiger native to the Russian Far EastNortheast China, and possibly North Korea. It once ranged throughout the Korean Peninsulanorth China, and eastern Mongolia. The population currently inhabits mainly the Sikhote-Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population had been stable for more than a decade because of intensive conservation efforts, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population was declining.

The Siberian is the largest of the tigers and males can exceed 700 lbs., larger than a male lion. My question is why is does such a large animal exist is such a cold climate? Typically the largest animals favor a warmer climate.

Moses, Thutmose, Akhenaten & Osarsiph

Moses, Thutmose, Akhenaten & Osarsiph

The Exodus story, as described in most versions of the bible was first put in writing Circa 600 BCE as result of many years of oral tradition. It purports to document events that occurred between 1450 & 1300 BCE.

Some have speculated that Thutmose III was the Pharoah at the time of the Exodus or that even he was Moses.  While the time frame exists, there is no written documentation existing to support that idea. However, there is historical evidence that support another theory regarding the Character Osarsiph and a potential relationship to the demise of the Pharoah Akhenaten.

The following from:

The Egyptians are famous for their record-keeping and yet no records have been found which make the slightest reference to the departure of a segment of the population of the land which, according to the Book of Exodus, numbered “six hundred thousand men on foot besides women and children”

Manetho’s story of Osarsiph/Moses is related by the historian Flavius Josephus (c. 37-100 CE) who cited Manetho’s story at length in his own work. The Roman historian Tacitus (c. 56-117 CE) tells a similar story of a man named Moses who becomes the leader of a colony of Egyptian lepers. This has led a number of writers and scholars (Sigmund Freud and Joseph Campbell among them) to assert that the Moses of the Bible was not a Hebrew who was raised in an Egyptian palace but an Egyptian priest who led a religious revolution to establish monotheism. This theory links Moses closely with the pharaoh Akhenaten (1353-1336 BCE) who established his own monotheistic belief in the god Aten, unlike any other god and more powerful than all, in the fifth year of his reign. Akhenaten’s monotheism may have been born of a genuine religious impulse or could have been a reaction against the priests of the god Amun who had grown almost as wealthy and powerful as the throne. In establishing monotheism and banning all the old gods of Egypt, Akhenaten effectively eliminated any threat to the crown from the priesthood. The theory advanced by Campbell and others (following Sigmund Freud’s Moses and Monotheism in this) is that Moses was a priest of Akhenaten who led like-minded followers out of Egypt after Akhenaten’s death when his son, Tutankhamun (c. 1336-1327 BCE), restored the old gods and practices. Still other scholars equate Moses with Akhenaten himself and see the Exodus story as a mythological rendering of Akhenaten’s honest attempt at religious reform.

Potential Egyptian Pharaohs during the estimated time of the Exodus:

Thutmose III ca. 1479–1425 B.C.

Hatshepsut (as regent) ca. 1479–1473 B.C.

Hatshepsut ca. 1473–1458 B.C.

Amenhotep II 1427–1400 B.C.

Thutmose IV ca. 1400–1390 B.C.

Amenhotep III ca. 1390–1352 B.C.

Amenhotep IV ca. 1353–1349 B.C.

Akhenaten ca. 1349–1336 B.C.