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Date of creation (From Conservapedia)

Date of creation (From Conservapedia)

“The date of Creation has been debated for many years. Separate calculations have given different answers although most are fairly close to each other.

Basis of calculation

The Bible contains chronogenealogies from Adam to Abraham, listing the age at which each person in the genealogy gave birth to the next person in the list, thus allowing by simple addition a determination of how many years passed between Creation and Abraham. There are other chronological indications also, allowing that calculation to be extended into the times of the kings, when the dates can be correlated with other events in history for which the absolute date is known. By this means, in theory, one can calculate the date of Creation.

Calculated dates

The best known date of Creation is the one calculated by Archbishop James Ussher in the 17th century – namely 6:00 p.m. Saturday, October 23, 4004 BC. Ussher calculated the year of Creation by the following means:

  • He accepted the date of the death of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon at 562 BC.
  • He then assumed that Evil-Merodach began to reign in that year.
  • King Jehoiachin received a pension from Evil-Merodach beginning in this year, and that he was taken captive 37 years before then, or in 599 BC. (The final Fall of Jerusalem occurred eleven years later; hence Ussher places the Fall of Jerusalem in 588 BC, not 586 BC as most secular archaeologists assume.)
  • From that anchor point, Ussher worked backward through the king lists of the Divided Kingdoms Northern and Southern. See I and II Kings.
  • He worked backward further to set the dates-of-reign of King Solomon, and calculated the Exodus of Israel at 480 years earlier than the groundbreaking of the Temple, which was in Solomon’s fourth year. This fell in 1012 BC, and so Ussher fixed the Exodus at 1491 BC.
  • Based on his interpretation of Galatians 3:17 , Ussher then fixed the date of the entry of Abraham into Canaan. This was in 1921 BC.
  • Ussher here made a key assumption that is in great dispute. We read that Abraham was 75 years old when he embarked into Canaan. We also read that Terah was 70 years old when he “begat” Abraham, Nahor (the younger), and Haran. Ussher’s assumption, which added another sixty years to the reckoning of Creation, was this: that Abraham did not embark on his own until after Terah had died at the age of 205. This would mean that Terah was actually 130 years old, not 70, when Abraham was born—and presumably that Nahor the Younger or Haran was born when Terah was 70. Ussher’s sole warrant for this assumption is that the Bible describes Abraham’s departure after it describes Terah’s “death.” But Terah’s “death” might be spiritual rather than physical, in that Terah had originally intended to take all his family out of Ur of the Chaldees and into Canaan, but forgot his purpose and grew too accustomed to worldly enticements in the country of Haran. If that is the case, then Abraham might have departed when Terah was still alive—which is what the inventors of the present Hebrew calendar assumed.
  • Ussher then backtracked the pedigree of Abraham to Arphaxad, born to Shem two years after the Great Flood. He therefore concluded that the Great Flood happened in 2349 BC.
  • Finally, Ussher backtracked the genealogy of Shem to Adam.

To arrive at the month and approximate date, Ussher concluded that Creation must have occurred during the Autumnal Equinox, which in fact is the favorite start of many of the world’s calendars, ancient and modern. He also assumed that the ancient Hebrews did not attempt to synchronize their months with the moon until after their exile into Babylonia. He thus calculated the date of Creation at October 23, 4004 BC according to the Julian calendar.

Because the seven days of Creation (including one day of rest) set the pattern for our week, Ussher decided that the Creation began on the first day of the week, i.e. Sunday. However, because the day was defined as being an “evening and morning”, and some calendars to this day still have the days beginning at sunset, Ussher concluded Creation actually began at what on modern western calendars would be 6 p.m. (sunset at the equinox) on Saturday.

James Ussher’s calculation was the best-sourced calculation in all of Christendom at the time. Ussher also spoke with authority, and from a position of authority. For those reasons, his dates for various Biblical events appeared in the margins of King James and other Bibles for centuries, until the last quarter of the twentieth century, when publishers abandoned this practice. Sir Isaac Newton defended Ussher’s date.

Johannes Kepler also attempted to calculate the date using his own methods (sadly lost to time); he worked it out to be 3992 B.C.

Such calculations in fact date from at least the Middle Ages, and offer a range of dates from around 5000 to 4000 BC. The date used by Eastern Orthodox Christianity is often 1 September, 5509 BC. This was the date used as the beginning point for their calendars. Traditionalist Catholics often use 5199 BC. Judaic tradition reckons the date of Creation at 3760 BC. Another calculation, beginning with the date of the destruction of Jerusalem known from secular history and working backwards, arrives at 4163 BC.

Retrieved from:  “”              The preceding information assumes that the bible is an accurate historical document. Most folks date the actual writing of the first book of Genesis at between 1200 and 900 BC. The latter date is likely the most reasonable as there is no conclusive evidence that the Aramaic Alphabet existed before that time. This means that only an oral account existing for at least 3,000 years. The veracity of every detail (and likely most details) is doubtful. If we place any value on the scientific evidence of creation of the Universe, the Galaxy and our Planet then common sense will dictate that the time frame is far off. This does not mean that certain elements of the bible are inaccurate. Many elements of the text that closely correspond to the Sumerian tablets.  The Sumerian tablets were written several thousands of years before the bible!

Rumicolca Ruins (just for fun)

Rumicolca Ruins (just for fun)

Rumicolca Ruins off highway 35 near Cuzco. Look closely and you will the original (older) style construction which has been overlaid by the cruder Incan style. This appears to be a “gateway” to the Cuzco Valley. I have been to Cuzco twice and have another trip scheduled. I remember visiting this site on my first trip. Only a small portion of the gateway was constructed in the precision, finished style found at Sacsayhuaman, several locations in Cuzco and also at Machu Picchu.

One story in Cusco folklore goes as follows: The Wari people once inhabited the city of Pikillaqta. The Wari were a pre-Inca civilization that existed from about 550 to 900 A.D., and they are known as the first state level society in the Sierra region of Peru. They were also the first to urbanize,[4] and at Pikillaqta, this created a substantial need for a steady and large supply of water. One of the great Wari leaders decided to solve this problem by creating a competition. He offered his only daughter’s hand in marriage to the man who could bring water to Pikillaqta. Two men wished to marry his daughter-one from Cusco and one from Puno-and so they both began to create plans for a way to bring water to the city. In the end, the man from Cusco decided to build a great canal from the Laguna de Huacarpay to Pikillaqta. In order to do this, he needed to cross a large gap, and so he built the first and largest aqueduct in ancient Peru, which still stands today. This is La Portada de Rumicolca.”

This is a fun story but not one that rings true with me. I think the following makes more sense.

The Gate Theory

“This first theory held that La Portada was originally built by the Wari to serve as a gate to their area of rule. Later, the Inca built a larger gate on top of the old Wari foundations. This gate was meant to separate the four “suyus,” or regions, of the Inca Empire. Specifically, La Portada was the gate between the northern region of Cusco and the southern region of Puno. Since it was on the main highway between these two regions, travelers would have to pass through the gate and pay a toll to the Inca. This theory suggests that the Inca also modified La Portada to serve as an aqueduct. This theory likely attempted to explain the fact that much of La Portada is made up of crude Wari stonework, encased by finely carved Inca stone veneer.”

What bothers me about both stories is the assumed involvement by the Wari. If true then they must have been responsible for all of the exquisite construction at Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco & Machu Picchu. There is no evidence that they had this level of technology. In my mind the only question would be whether it was the Wari or the Incas that added the much cruder construction.

My thinking is that the original precise construction in all locations was a result of a much older, and yet to be identified, civilization. Their technology has been lost and even today we are not able to replicate either precision required. See from a wall in Cuzco:

As amazing is the ability of this civilization to transport large stones (some over 250 tons) from the quarry site several miles away and up a 45 degree slope above Cuzco to an elevation of 12,000 ft!

Standards of living & Quality of life

Standards of living & Quality of life

The latest surveys show that the US has the 10th highest standard of living among all of the world’s countries. All the countries that rank higher on the list are European with the single exception of New Zealand. The standard of living is primarily a financial measurement showing the buying power of the average citizen.

A better measurement, in my view, is quality of life which takes into account standards of living factors and several others that determine life’s quality.

I apologize for the format as I could not get an effective copy & paste on this chart, but you get the idea:

RankCountryQuality of Life IndexPurchasing Power IndexSafety IndexHealth Care IndexCost of Living IndexProperty Price to Income RatioTraffic Commute Time IndexPollution IndexClimate Index
9New Zealand183.0797.5959.1173.7173.018.5130.7223.4995.46
13United States176.77119.1053.2769.2370.953.5432.6635.7476.75
18United Kingdom166.73100.4656.3674.8865.339.8234.7540.6387.71

Our country ranks a bit lower on this scale at #13. What is perplexing to me is why we are not #1 when it comes to both measurements? Only two of the countries that rank ahead of the US have a per capita GDP that is higher. Norway at $71,590 and Switzerland at $61,360. The US stands at $59,495. The difference is simply on how income and wealth are redistributed. a